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nded as the cut-off point for diagnosing diabetes. A value less than 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) does not exclude diabetes diagnosed using glucose tests. One advantage of using HbA1c for diagnosis is that the test does not require a fasting blood sample.

Situations where HbA1c is not appropriate for diagnosis of diabetes include:[6]

Children and young people.
Patients suspected of having type 1 diabetes.
Patients with symptoms of diabetes for less than two months.
Patients at high diabetes risk who are acutely ill.
Patients taking medication that may cause rapid glucose rise – eg, steroids, antipsychotics.
Patients with acute pancreatic damage, including pancreatic surgery.
Presence of other factors that influence HbA1c and its measurement:
Increased HbA1c: iron deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, decreased erythropoiesis.
Decreased HbA1c: administration of erythropoietin, iron, vitamin B12, reticulocytosis, chronic liver disease.
Altered haemoglobin:
Genetic or chemical alterations in haemoglobin: haemoglobinopathies, HbF and methaemoglobin may increase or decrease HbA1c.
Increased HbA1c: alcoholism, chronic kidney disease.
Decreased HbA1c: aspirin, vitamin C and vitamin E, certain haemoglobinopathies.
Erythrocyte destruction:
Increased HbA1c: increased erythrocyte lifespan – eg, splenectomy.
Decreased HbA1c: decreased erythrocyte lifespan – eg, haemoglobinopathies, splenomegaly, rheumatoid arthritis or drugs such as antiretrovirals, ribavirin and dapsone.
Other factors:
Increased HbA1c: hyperbilirubinaemia, alcoholism, large doses of aspirin, chronic opiate use.
Variable HbA1c: haemoglobinopathies.
Decreased HbA1c: hypertriglyceridaemia

Low Energy? Look At Your Fingernail Moons

Lovely info. Who would guessed.

The Green Life

I raised a bit of a ruckus last week at a women’s business network meeting when I asked a panel of health experts if having no fingernail moons meant you were low in iodine, and hence, more likely to develop early breast cancer.  No one really knew the answer to my admittedly obscure question, but everyone became interested in looking at their fingernails and comparing them to their neighbors.  Because people found this topic so fascinating, I decided to hunt down the answer.  I have since updated this post and created a new post about self medicating with iodine – bad idea!

What do moons on your fingernails mean?

Moons on your fingernails are located at the base of your fingernails, closest to your fingers.  They are the lighter half moon shaped growth under your nails.  In palmistry, overly large moons can mean an overactive thyroid and high blood…

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Breaking The Yoke Of Bad Luck

Evangelist Joshua Orekhie

Scriptures: Isaiah 60:1; Psalm 105: 17-20; John 2:4; 5:1-8; Genesis 7:23; Exodus 12:36; Judges 13:8-9; Ezra 7:6; Nehemiah. 2:7-8; Luke 1:28; Daniel 6:1-3.  

The spirit of bad luck and lost opportunities prevents people from entering their destinies. The opposite of this spirit is the spirit of favour and grace, which can empower us to fulfill God’s purpose and plans for our lives. Some of the indications of the presence of the spirit of bad luck and lost opportunities in a man’s life are: They always miss their timings either by omission or commission. You are promised help or favour by people, but before they can help you, bad things happen to them making them unable to fulfill their promises to you. On the day you are invited to receive a favour or help, things beyond your control or things you don’t understand mysteriously or forcibly keeps you from going to the place of help or blessing. In the midst of many people, you are always singled out for rebuke, reprimand, query, suspension, retrenchment or victimization for no just cause. You are always punished for other people’s crimes and offences. People somehow find it difficult to help you. They’ll rather give their help to someone else who is less deserving. You or others make great efforts to make something or an occasion very successful only for you to make a little silly mistake that ruins the whole thing. You always have last minute disappointments. Despite your gifts, talents and potentials, men find it easy to forget, ignore or bypass you. Your progress is not commensurate with your efforts (your input always exceeds the output). In the midst of many people, you are the one disaster strikes all the time. People with bad luck are always visited with regular repeated tragedies.

CONFESSION: Galatians 3:13-14; “Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is everyone that hangeth on a tree: That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ, that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith”.


Ps 1; Ps 46  

Takes these prayer bullets during the day and MIDNIGHT (12am-2am)

1. Father, I bring repentance before you for my personal sins and errors. Please Lord, cleanse me with the precious blood of Jesus Christ.

ALSO READ:  Prayer Points Against Witchcraft Manipulation And Control

2. Lord, I equally repent before you for my family and ancestral sins that have created an in-road for the enemy to afflict me with bad luck. O Lord, have mercy upon us in Jesus name.

3. I use the token of the blood of Jesus to silence every strange altars in my life and destiny in Jesus mighty name.

4. I also use the precious blood of Jesus to blot out all the handwritings of ordinances of bad luck working against my life.

5. I violently uproot the tree of bad luck planted in my life by the enemy in Jesus name.

6. Every strong man of bad luck attached to my life, be roasted by Holy Ghost fire right now in Jesus name.

7. Let the blood of Jesus Christ dissolve the roots and foundation of bad luck in my life right now.

8. I renounce, denounce and reject all inherited or acquired spirits of bad luck in Jesus name.

9. I receive a total purification in the blood of Jesus from all the evil perfumes of bad luck in Jesus name.

10. You particular spirits that keep me away from my opportunities, divine timings, places and people of my blessings, I bind and overthrow all of you right now in Jesus name.

11. You spirit of misfortune around me, receive the arrow of fire in Jesus name.

12. I receive God’s deliverance from blindness to my opportunities and timings in Jesus name.

13. Holy Ghost, please re-habilitate my spiritual life and make me more sensitive in Jesus name.

14. Father, let the power of an entrenched bad luck be broken in my life today.

15. Let every altar of misfortune, blindness, deafness and bad luck raised against me collapse right now in Jesus name.

16. I sack all satanic priests ministering at the altar of bad luck against my life in Jesus name.

17. Father, change my name and my fortunes from BAD LUCK to GOOD LUCK in Jesus name.

18. Thank you, dear heavenly father, for launching me into a perpetual season of good luck, favour and endless opportunities.

19. Every wind of bad luck blowing against me, blowing away all my blessings to an unknown land, be revoked, in the name of Jesus.

20. Inherited pattern of bad luck in my family line, working against me blow-by-blow, die, in the name of Jesus.  

21. Fire of God! Fire of God! Fire of God, arise and destroy the root of bad luck in my life and family, in the name of Jesus.

22. You spirit of misfortune around me, around my marriage, around my place of work, receive the arrows of fire, in the name of Jesus.

23. Evil perfumes of bad luck around my face, life, I receive total purification in the blood of Jesus, in Jesus name.

24. All curses, spells, jinxes, bewitchment and enchantments of bad luck shall not prosper in my life, in the name of Jesus.

25. Lord, give no one the opportunity to sympatise with me this year, in Jesus name

26. I reject every demonic nickname of bad luck, in the name of Jesus.

27. (Lay your right hand on your forehead and say this) ” from now on, I am free from the spirit of bad luck. I shall not walk into bad luck. My life shall be easy. I shall see positive changes in my life. Every bad luck in my life  is converting to success and victory in Jesus name.

28. I violently uproot the tree of bad luck planted in my life by household enemies, in the name of Jesus.

29. Every embargo of bad luck placed upon my destiny, break by fire, in the name of Jesus.

30. Every spirit of bad luck assigned to destroy my goodness and opportunity, scatter by fire, in the name of Jesus.

31. I break the power of territorial curses over my life, in the name of Jesus.

32. Satanic polluter assigned to pollute my name before my helpers, die, in the name of Jesus.

33. Every demonic name given to me by my parents when I was small, wipe off by the blood of Jesus.

34. Any foundational serpent and scorpion programmed failure and bad luck into my life, be destroyed, in the name of Jesus.

35. Thou chain of bad luck in marriage, business, career etc holding me down for years, die, in the name of Jesus.

36. Every mark of failure at the edge of success, be wiped off by the blood of Jesus.

37. I bind every power cursing my destiny into ineffectiveness, in the name of Jesus.

38. I turn the evil devices of household witchcraft upside down, in the name of Jesus.  

39. Every power that has singled me out for recurrent bad luck and disappointment, be wasted by fire, in the name of Jesus.  

40. My names, receive total deliverance from satanic bewitchment and bad luck and misfortune, in the name of Jesus.

41. Evil family dust resting upon my glory, be wiped off, in the name of Jesus.

42. Curses by night and day shall not stand against me, in the name of Jesus.

43. Every covenant of satanic pronouncement upon my life and marriage, break by fire, in the name of Jesus.

44. Every power that wants my efforts to turn against me, I pull you down, in the name of Jesus.

45. You dead works in my life, get out now, in the name of Jesus.

46. You bad luck that has turn my blessings to a curse, release me and catch fire, in the name of Jesus.

47. I separate myself from the spirit of bad luck in my family line, in the name of Jesus.

48. Every evil seed sown into my life and those of my children, die, in Jesus name.

49. I command my legs  to carry me to the places of my blessing and progress, in Jesus’ name

50. I  recover everything that I have lost to the spirit of bad luck, in the name of Jesus.

51. Pray any other prayer points as led in the spirit.  

52. Thank you Jesus for saving me from the curse of bad luck.

DECLARATION ON THAT SAND: (HOLD the sand firmly and take the following prayers). Declare it as many times as your spirit tells you to.

O LORD, anoint this sand in the name of the Father, the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Let the dew of heaven trouble this sand now. I cover the sand with the blood of Jesus. O You sand, hear the word of the Lord, I separate myself from the territorial powers using the sand to programme the steps of my destiny. Just as Moses stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt (Exodus 8:16:17), O ye sand, I send you an errand into the kingdom of darkness, become a weapon of attacks on my enemies after the order of Moses against the Egyptians and Pharaoh (Ex 9:8-9), in Jesus name. Every power using the sand to control my life and destiny, die, in the name of Jesus, Every power blowing the sand against my life, location (mention it), back fire, in the name of Jesus. I separate myself from the limitation of my environment. I break myself from every bondage that afflict men in my house, office, business etc You this sand, as I sprinkle it back to the earth (ground), it shall break forth the band’s of wickedness upon my life (Ex 9:8-10), in Jesus name. As I sprinkle it back to the dust, every of my problem is over. As I sprinkle this sand in my environment, let all demonic presence disappear. As I sprinkle this sand back to the earth, it shall bring restoration to me, in Jesus name. (Make other declarations as led)

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Urgent! Volunteers Needed!

We need volunteer teachers in these areas:
Mathematics (Junior and Senior Secondary Classes).
Economics (same as above)
French (same as above)
Business Studies (same as above)
School: OCAC College, Kpaduma 1(Asokoro Extension), Abuja.

General info: The school was set up to give hope for a better future to children that otherwise would have ended up as sex workers, under aged mothers, druggies, touts for hire……. It is our community service project. Where we serve is filled with people struggling to get by.
We run tests so those who score above 70 are admitted on a scholarship. Their termly academic performance keeps them under the scheme and this has largely been successful.
We heavily depend on donations and volunteers to function.

We need your help.

Collins Nwosu

The Nigerian Drug Abuse

The abuse of drugs among youth has become a disturbing trend in Nigeria. This recently led to the federal government’s ban on codeine as an active pharmaceutical ingredient for making cough syrup.

There is little information on how many drug users there are in Nigeria. The abuse of prescription drugs is so rampant and has gone beyond codeine. The ban on codeine-related drugs might only spur many youth to look for alternative drugs to satisfy their urge.

Some of the over-the-counter drugs which have been abused depending on the defined use include antibiotics, antidiarrhoeals, laxatives, pain-relieving drugs, sedatives, amphetamines and cannabis. The availability and possible medical needs of these other drugs indicate government must comprehensively review Nigeria’s drug policy rather than just ban one item.

PREMIUM TIMES lists some of the common generic drugs currently abused on the streets:

This is a pain killer now used as an ecstasy drug by youth in Nigeria. Tramadol is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to severe pain. It is meant to be prescribed by a physician, unfortunately, the drug has found its way to the streets.The pill comes in different milligrammes from 50 to 500. The recommended dose of tramadol is 50 to 100mg, with a maximum of 200mg in serve treatment cases. Anything above 200mg will cause a massive euphoric effect similar to what is gotten from taking marijuana, or other opiate medication, oxycodone etc..

Tramadol is used by some men to prevent quick ejaculation. One or two tablet of 500mg is believed by some to increase libido and staying in power when the male user wants to impress a woman. Side effect of tramadol when taken in high dosage include but is not limited to nausea, diarrohea, loss of appetite, dry mouth. Long term abuse can lead to convulsion, seizures, serious health damage, birth defects in pregnant women or even death.

This is also known as Roko, Roofies, Roche, Renfol and has many other slangs. Rohypnol is meant to be a sold only after a physician’s prescription. The drug is a tranquiliser about ten times more potent than valium.

However, in Nigeria, the drug can be gotten both on the streets and over-the-counter without prescription. Rohypnol is used to treat severe insomnia and for anesthetic purposes. The drug is relatively cheap and gives the user a hazy feeling.The drug is often taken with alcoholic or assorted drinks. Addicts could sometimes crush the pill to be taken with marijuana or other herbs. This could also be injected. Rohypnol is nearly tasteless making it a pill of choice for drugging unsuspecting victims. The pill has a reputation of a “date-rape” drug because of its paralyzing effect.

The effects start 20-30 minutes after taking the drug, peaks within two hours and may persist for eight or even 12 hours.
A person can be so incapacitated (unable to act) that he or she collapses. The taker lies on the floor, eyes open, able to observe events but completely unable to move. Afterwards, memory is impaired and they cannot recall anything.The person also experiences loss of muscle control, confusion, drowsiness and amnesia.

This is a cheap pain killer which can be gotten from hawkers, street side vendors and drug store. The drug is usually hawked around pubs.
People swallowing Alabukun with alcohol have become a common sight not regarding the medical implication of doing so.
Alabukun is a locally produced analgesic in powder form. According to manufacturer of the drug, it is a combination of aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid -760mg) and Caffeine. Some Nigerians take it to neutralise alcohol or to treat hangover. Some mix it with cocaine and other substances that can be sniffed.

It is also known as Tylenol. It is an over-the-counter pain killer but also sold on the streets and by road-side hawkers. The drug, because of its chemical composition, has an ability to numb the muscles, emotional pains and sometimes creates an exciting effect to the user.

Most abusers use it to kill desperation, emotional trauma, and depression among others. To get an euphoric effect, the pills are usually taken with alcohol or coca-cola. Some crush the pills and mix with other substances for a ‘higher effect’.
Unfortunately, this drug when abused can become harmful to the body both physically and mentally. Abuse of Aspirin damages the liver and heart. The drug is not good for diabetic and hypertensive patients.

This is also known as diazepam. This is one of the drugs which is not meant to be sold without a doctor’s prescription. Valium unfortunately, is still being sold over the counter without prescription. It is also sold in the black market and can be found on the streets.
Valium is an addictive benzodiazepine with longer lasting effect than other drugs in its class.
The drug can be administered via oral injection or as a tablet. It can also be crushed, injected or mixed with other drugs. Valium affects the brain and produces fast euphoric high. Over time, it is hard for the abuser’s brain to function normally without the drug. The risk is often higher when Valium is combined with other drugs such as alcohol, opioids, among others.

Q & A

Hello Shade,

My wife has been pestering me on this matter of Wills and I finally see reason with her. She has contacted our family lawyer, she wants us to combine assets and write a joint Will. The problem is I have assets she does not know about which I would like my siblings to inherit, since our children will be well catered for.

My siblings and my wife don’t get along too well and she’s not likely to welcome the idea of willing anything to them. I’m worried. Is there a way to bequest these assets without listing them? Does every asset have to be stated categorically in the Will? Is a joint Will even possible or advisable?

Roland, from Port Harcourt

Hello Roland,

Let me start by commending your wife’s futuristic attitude. You should appreciate her for insisting that you protect your assets in a Will. She wants the best for you and your children. You have raised a number of issues, I will attempt to tackle them one at a time.

First, a joint Will is one which is co-signed by two or more persons (usually a married couple), which combines their individual wishes. It may also be appropriate in a situation where you and your spouse own most of your assets jointly.

Is there a way to bequest these assets without listing them?
There are other ways of transferring assets without using a Will. A Trust may be used. A trust is an arrangement where an individual transfers what he owns to an independent person or entity for the benefit of identified persons or entities.

You can establish a Trust and transfer the assets you wish to transfer to your siblings to the Trust. You may name yourself and your siblings as the beneficiaries of the Trust and instruct that the assets in the Trust be transferred to your siblings by the Trustee upon your demise. Once those assets are in a Trust, there is no need to reflect them in your Will. A corporate Trustee such as ARM Trustees Limited can act as Trustee to the Trust and provide you with guidance on establishing it.

You may also consider gifting those assets to your siblings now so that they assume ownership immediately. This might not be an attractive option as you would immediately lose control of any such assets that you gift.

Does every asset have to be stated categorically in the Will?
Where another estate plan (such as a Trust) exists together with a Will, it is not necessary to mention the Trust assets in the Will because those assets and the beneficiaries are already catered for under the Trust.

There are other assets such as Life Insurance which you need not include in a Will as your beneficiaries would have been named in the policy document already.

Is a joint Will even possible or advisable?
Joint Wills are seldom used nowadays because of their likelihood of creating future problems. One of the biggest potential problems is that the surviving spouse would be unable to change the terms of the Will regardless of changes in situations after the death of his or her spouse. A typical example could be the inability of a surviving spouse to leave some of the assets of a Joint Will to his or her stepchild after remarriage.

Whatever option you choose eventually, writing a Will is not negotiable, especially with existing undertones of disagreement between your spouse and extended family. The assurance that everyone will be well catered for should the unexpected occur will give you unrivalled peace.

About Sade
Folashade has a wealth of experience in legal structuring, capital markets, and financing transactions. Her expertise also spans Private Trust, and other succession/estate planning alternatives.

Culled –

Prophet Habakkuk

We don’t know much about the prophet Habakkuk. Not even his father, tribe, or hometown is provided. Yet he is believed to be a temple musician-prophet because he had his own stringed instruments (see Habakkuk 3:19). He was likely a contemporary of the prophets Nahum, Zephaniah, and Jeremiah. He prophesied in a period of violence and political chaos that began in the context of Assyria’s upheaval, continued during the Babylonian victory over Jerusalem (597 bc), and ended in Babylon’s fall to the Persians (539 bc).

He would have felt the impact of the death of good King Josiah, who had brought Judah back to God for a short time. Before and after Josiah’s reign, Judah had turned away from God and been characterized by moral and spiritual decay that included the worship of other gods. No wonder Habakkuk was in despair! In his little book he questions (complains to) God out of his burdened heart, and God answers. In the end, the prophet has a deeper understanding of God’s justice.

Top of the morning people

February 21
Do You Really Love Him?
By Oswald Chambers

She has done a good work for Me. —Mark 14:6

If what we call love doesn’t take us beyond ourselves, it is not really love. If we have the idea that love is characterized as cautious, wise, sensible, shrewd, and never taken to extremes, we have missed the true meaning. This may describe affection and it may bring us a warm feeling, but it is not a true and accurate description of love.

Have you ever been driven to do something for God not because you felt that it was useful or your duty to do so, or that there was anything in it for you, but simply because you love Him? Have you ever realized that you can give things to God that are of value to Him? Or are you just sitting around daydreaming about the greatness of His redemption, while neglecting all the things you could be doing for Him? I’m not referring to works which could be regarded as divine and miraculous, but ordinary, simple human things— things which would be evidence to God that you are totally surrendered to Him. Have you ever created what Mary of Bethany created in the heart of the Lord Jesus? “She has done a good work for Me.”

There are times when it seems as if God watches to see if we will give Him even small gifts of surrender, just to show how genuine our love is for Him. To be surrendered to God is of more value than our personal holiness. Concern over our personal holiness causes us to focus our eyes on ourselves, and we become overly concerned about the way we walk and talk and look, out of fear of offending God. “…but perfect love casts out fear…” once we are surrendered to God (1 John 4:18). We should quit asking ourselves, “Am I of any use?” and accept the truth that we really are not of much use to Him. The issue is never of being of use, but of being of value to God Himself. Once we are totally surrendered to God, He will work through us all the time.

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If a man cannot prove his religion in the valley, it is not worth anything.  Shade of His Hand, 1200 L

Bible in a Year: Numbers 1-3; Mark 3


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Ribavirin has been assigned to pregnancy category X by the FDA. Nearly all animal studies have revealed evidence of embryolethality and teratogenicity. There are no controlled data in human pregnancies. One published case reports the uneventful use of ribavirin at 33 weeks gestation. Ribavirin therapy is contraindicated in women who are pregnant and in the male partners of women who are pregnant. Female patients receiving ribavirin and the partners of male patients receiving ribavirin must avoid pregnancy, using at least two reliable forms of contraception, during treatment and for 6 months after completion of treatment. To monitor maternal-fetal outcomes of pregnant women or female partners of male patients exposed to ribavirin, a Ribavirin Pregnancy Registry has been established. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling 1-800-593-2214 (USA).

The manufacturer recommends the use of at least two reliable forms of effective contraception during treatment with ribavirin and during the 6 months after completion of treatment. A negative pregnancy test should be obtained immediately before the planned start of therapy. Health personnel and visitors who are pregnant or trying to become pregnant should also avoid contact with aerosolized ribavirin until more information is available. In one adverse drug report, 3 nurses who worked in the same intensive care unit gave birth to babies with ventricular septal defects. However, only one mother was possibly exposed to ribavirin 5 months prior to estimated conception. A specific causal relationship has not been established.

Ribavirin Breastfeeding Warnings
There are no data on the excretion of ribavirin into human milk. The manufacturer recommends that due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Other serious side effects

Most other side effects from ribavirin occur in the first few days or weeks of treatment, but they can also develop over time. Call your doctor right away if you have other serious side effects from ribavirin. These can include:

Eye problems

Ribavirin can cause eye problems such as trouble seeing, loss of vision, and macular edema (swelling in the eye). It can also cause bleeding in the retina and a very serious condition called detached retina.

Symptoms of eye problems can include:

blurry or wavy vision
floating specks that suddenly appear in your line of vision
flashes of light that appear in one or both eyes
seeing colors as pale or washed out
Call your doctor if any of these symptoms occur suddenly or seem to get worse.

Lung problems

Ribavirin can cause lung problems such as trouble breathing and pneumonia (infection of the lungs). It can also cause pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the lungs).

Symptoms of lung problems can include:

shortness of breath
chest pain
Call your doctor if any of these symptoms occur suddenly or seem to get worse. If you develop lung problems, your doctor may stop your treatment with this drug.


Ribavirin can cause pancreatitis, which is inflammation of the pancreas. The pancreas is an organ that makes substances that help with digestion.

Symptoms of pancreatitis can include:

sudden and severe pain in your abdomen
Call your doctor right away if you have any of these symptoms. If you develop pancreatitis, your doctor will likely stop your treatment with this drug.

Mood changes

Ribavirin can cause mood changes, including depression. This can be a short-term or long-term side effect.

Symptoms can include feeling:

Call your doctor if you have these symptoms and they bother you or don’t go away.

Increased infections

Ribavirin raises your risk of infection from bacteria and viruses. Ribavirin can lower your body’s level of white blood cells. These cells fight infection. With fewer white blood cells, you may get infections more easily.

Symptoms of an infection can include:

body aches
Call your doctor if any of these symptoms occur suddenly or seem to get worse.

Decreased growth in children

Ribavirin can cause decreased growth in children who take it. This means they may grow less and gain less weight than their peers. This effect can occur when your child uses ribavirin with the drug interferon.

Symptoms can include:

a slower rate of growth compared to what is expected for the child’s age
a slower rate of weight increase compared to what is expected for the child’s age
Your child’s doctor should monitor your child’s growth during their treatment and until the end of certain growth phases. Your child’s doctor can tell you more.

Breastfeeding effects

It’s not known if ribavirin passes into breast milk to a child who is breastfed. If you breastfeed your child, talk with your doctor. You’ll likely need to stop breastfeeding or avoid using ribavirin.

More about ribavirin

Ribavirin has been used for many years to treat hepatitis C. It’s always used in combination with at least one other drug. Until recently, treatments for hepatitis C centered around ribavirin and another drug called interferon (Pegasys, Pegintron). Today, ribavirin may be used with newer hepatitis C drugs, such as Harvoni or Viekira Pak.


Ribavirin comes in the forms of a tablet, capsule, or liquid solution. You take these forms by mouth. All forms are available as brand-name drugs, which include Copegus, Rebetol, and Virazole. Your doctor can give you a full list of current brand-name versions. The tablet and capsule are also available in generic forms.

How ribavirin works

Ribavirin doesn’t cure hepatitis C, but it does help prevent severe effects from the disease. These effects include liver disease, liver failure, and liver cancer. Ribavirin also helps reduce the symptoms of hepatitis C infection.

Ribavirin may work by:

Reducing the number of hepatitis C virus cells in your body. This can help reduce your symptoms.
Increasing the number of gene mutations (changes) in the virus. These increased mutations can weaken the virus.
Stopping one of the processes that help the virus make copies of itself. This helps slow the spread of hepatitis C in your body.